The authorized assist sector is in such dire straits that the Regulation Society is contemplating new steering for companies on authorized compliance whereas going through insolvency. Regardless of a latest authorities announcement of an extra £51m for the prison authorized assist sector, all however essentially the most optimistic count on widespread closures in 2021, significantly amongst companies reliant on litigation. Within the post-pandemic world, low overheads, cooperation, flexibility and expertise have emerged as key to survival.

We now have needed to improve non-public work to virtually 25% of turnover to make authorized assist work sustainable

Nina Joshi, Duncan Lewis

With 24 places of work throughout the nation, Duncan Lewis is one in every of England’s largest suppliers of civil and prison authorized aid-funded recommendation. Managing director Nina Joshi tells the Gazette: ‘We now have needed to improve non-public work to virtually 25% of turnover to make authorized assist work sustainable.’

The agency has additionally secured a ‘giant working capital facility’ from Clydesdale Financial institution to fund authorized assist work in progress earlier than it may be billed. Earlier than Covid-19, the agency had taken ‘laborious business choices’ to cut back overheads to deal with swingeing cuts to authorized assist, together with outsourcing many back-office features comparable to IT assist, net and software program growth, and human assets.

‘Through the years we now have additionally closely invested in a bespoke built-in case/doc, HR and efficiency administration system to allow us to streamline our billing,’ Joshi provides.

Nationwide prison defence specialist Tuckers Solicitors is one other agency that has invested giant sums in creating its personal case administration software program. Observe director Adam Makepeace says: ‘A whole lot of companies have set their thoughts to outlive by chopping and chopping, and sweating the folks. We’ve taken a special strategy– we need to be sustainable in the long run.’

The agency now has two companies, he explains: a standard face-to-face legislation agency offering recommendation on the police station and in court docket; and a authorized companies infrastructure that different prison authorized assist companies can plug into. ‘We’re saying to companies: this can assist you within the day-to-day follow of prison and jail legislation and takes away the compliance aspect – your corporation can get again to doing the day job.’ The intention is to be ‘model agnostic’. Whereas companies turn into a part of Tuckers they preserve their very own native model. Kent Solicitors of north London and Murray Brankin in Coventry not too long ago joined the community, however additional growth plans have been stymied by Covid-19.

‘We had quite a lot of different folks lined up for mergers however that requires working capital, and whereas Tuckers nonetheless has the urge for food, the banks are much less inclined to lend,’ Makepeace says. ‘We are able to borrow to maintain the present enterprise however borrowing for growth is tougher – the phrases “credit score crunch” haven’t been used but, however that’s the place we’re.’

The place companies provide worthwhile business companies, authorized assist departments could battle to justify their existence. Questions on the way to divide meagre earnings between extra solvent groups and departments which might be nearly surviving will be tough.

Anthony Edwards of London-based TV Edwards says: ‘Within the 1980s and 1990s you noticed companies break up over that and we now have a whole lot of specialist prison practices. We battled for years in my agency about the way to divvy up. We tried all types of various divisions to maintain the agency collectively.’ Finally the agency’s completely different departments survived as a result of they cross-subsidised one another, he provides. ‘Right this moment’s prison consumer is tomorrow’s housing consumer, and the group care and advantages groups might also hyperlink in.’ The housing consumer will then usher in different work over their lifetime. That is much less more likely to occur in rural areas which is why deserts are bobbing up, Edwards observes.


Following the group

Christopher Stanley, a litigation guide within the London offi ce of Belfast-based human rights agency KRW Regulation, is greatest identified for his epic battles for authorized assist funding for the inquests into the 1974 Birmingham and Guildford IRA pub bombings. Within the Birmingham case the agency labored for 4 years within the UK professional bono, with some earnings from crowdfunding and assist from the workplace in Northern Eire.


Media curiosity is crucial for a profitable crowdfunding marketing campaign. ‘We solely have six companions however we now have an excellent PR machine,’ Stanley says. ‘We work laborious to domesticate all of the press, from the Morning Star to the Every day Categorical. I spend 50% of my time writing press releases. And it’s labored – we now have a better profile than we in all probability deserve. We gained Authorized Assist Agency of the Yr in 2020.’


As a consequence of its media profile the agency has gained one other, surprising type of earnings, through libel litigation to defend its personal repute. The agency’s work had been in contrast with that of Phil Shiner, the solicitor struck off in 2017 for pursuing unfounded claims of battle crimes towards Iraq veterans, and it has been wrongly accused of being the authorized arm of the IRA. ‘We normally settle out of court docket and it helps fund our work,’ Stanley says. However he doesn’t welcome the libel. ‘It places our enterprise in danger. They used to shoot attorneys in Eire and there’s nonetheless that menace.’


However KRW’s success in crowdfunding has come at a price. The Authorized Assist Company has denied funding to Stanley’s purchasers on the premise that money could possibly be raised via different means comparable to crowdfunding. In the meantime functions for authorized assist for the inquests into the London Bridge and Westminster Bridge terrorist assaults have been refused on public curiosity grounds. The consequence, Stanley says, is a stark inequality of arms at inquests, the place the state’s actors are represented by QCs and the victims’ family are unrepresented.

For Essex and London-based Edwards Duthie Shamash, the pliability allowed by its mixture of company, non-public consumer, authorities and commerce union companies, in addition to legal-aid-funded work, has been key to success.

When you have a agency that does an enormous chunk of business and personal work and 20% authorized assist, it would come to be seen as a charitable endeavour. That’s not the place we’re

James Harrison, Edwards Duthie Shamash

James Harrison, a accomplice locally legislation crew in London, says: ‘When you have a agency that does an enormous chunk of business and personal work and 20% authorized assist, it would come to be seen as a charitable endeavour. That’s not the place we’re.’

Authorized assist work accounts for round 60% of Edwards Duthie Shamash’s turnover and has served the agency effectively, he says: ‘Typically talking, the departments stability one another out. For instance, our property crew got here beneath stress throughout lockdown and alternatively our household authorized assist crew was busier than ever. It wants cautious administration however we’re much less weak than a smaller agency with all its eggs in a single basket.’

Nonetheless, any notion that bigger companies will trip the storm of authorized assist cuts and the pandemic extra simply just isn’t essentially true, he provides: ‘There are knock-on prices of coping with issues on an even bigger scale – the bigger spend on places of work and wages can offset any beneficial properties from economies of scale. The hot button is to be environment friendly and well-managed.’

Based on the Authorized Assist Practitioners Group, many members are considering of lowering workplace house. However CEO Chris Minnoch says deciding how a lot floorspace to retain is inflicting a conundrum at administration stage. ‘Companies must counterbalance diminished numbers of employees within the workplace with the necessity for extra space per individual due to social distancing,’ he notes.

The inflexibility of authorized assist contracts just isn’t serving to, Minnoch provides: ‘The contract has a requirement that within the geographic space during which you maintain your contract, you must have an workplace open a sure variety of hours per week. That was relaxed throughout lockdown however is now being phased again in.’

My uncomplicated and low overheads enterprise mannequin seems to be fairly effectively outfitted to deal with surprising circumstances like Covid-19, in contrast, say, to conventional excessive road practices with giant overheads and wage payments

Oscar Vincent, Vectis Regulation

A few of the prison authorized assist companies proving most ready to deal with the pandemic are run by sole practitioners. Oscar Vincent is among the Isle of Wight’s 4 obligation solicitors and a higher-court advocate. He runs his agency, Vectis Regulation, together with his spouse, who manages day-to-day operations. His expertise of lockdown is way from the image of gloom one may count on after months of closed courts.

‘Total, other than an preliminary dip in March and April, we now have skilled little distinction in workload and turnover through the lockdown and are actually again to the place we have been earlier than March,’ he tells the Gazette. ‘My uncomplicated and low overheads enterprise mannequin seems to be fairly effectively outfitted to deal with surprising circumstances like Covid-19, in contrast, say, to conventional excessive road practices with giant overheads and wage payments.’

The agency makes in depth use of IT within the type of a cloud-based case administration system and Vincent works lengthy, irregular hours. ‘You can also make it work in case you’re ready to place within the graft,’ he says.

One other sole crime practitioner, Gary Harvey of Harveys Solicitors in Flintshire, north Wales, says the agency’s earnings dropped by 60% within the interval from March via to the courts reopening, however he had ‘ridden the storm’ by furloughing his administrative employees and with the assistance of a £10,000 grant from the native authority. Like Vincent, he says the important thing to survival is minimal overheads. ‘It’s a must to minimize your material and have quantity or you’ll go beneath. You may’t borrow your approach out of this factor.’

Working in Wales additionally helps, he provides: ‘Being in London the place authorized assist charges aren’t a lot better than right here however the overheads are big? I don’t understand how they do it.’

Till 2019 Harvey was working with two different solicitors however after they left he was unable to interchange them. This labored to his profit. ‘Being a sole practitioner with set overheads and a low wage depend, it’s simpler for me to outlive. Two years in the past I’d have had an even bigger wage invoice and it could have been lots more durable,’ he displays.

The going continues to be robust, nonetheless. His hours are lengthy and even with prices minimize to a minimal, his earnings just isn’t excessive, and it’s unpredictable: ‘It’s tough. I work till late at evening and I nonetheless get pleasure from it, however I loved it much more once I was incomes extra.’ His recommendation to anybody coming into the sector is to get higher-court advocacy rights: ‘It’s further remuneration, lots of people are doing it, however the bar is sad.’


He will get in extra assist as crucial, utilizing self-employed brokers and the spare capability in bigger companies. One agency in Wrexham has 4 solicitors and a smaller turnover than he does as a sole practitioner, he says.

‘If I’m in Cheshire on Monday and have a case in Llandudno, I’ll get a neighborhood solicitor to do it. It’s cheaper to do this than using somebody on £40,000 who could or will not be busy,’ he explains. ‘Some companies cost the earth they usually don’t get any work from me.’ He additionally takes on work at under authorized assist charges to assist different attorneys. ‘I’ll get a name saying: “Gary you’re in Mould and I’m on the coast 50 miles away, will you do that case for £60?” I’ll, to assist out.’

Jason Hill, founding father of authorized consultancy TLC Legals and a former senior contract supervisor on the Authorized Assist Company, says he has been inundated with enquiries from folks trying to transfer from a big authorized assist division right into a smaller outfit, or go solo: ‘This occurs anyway – folks get itchy toes after round 5 years on common – however we’re undoubtedly seeing extra folks than previously.’

However he warns new crime sole practitioners to watch out of falling foul of the ‘14-hour rule’ for obligation solicitors. Responsibility solicitors should perform a minimal of 36 court docket hearings and police station attendances in a rolling 12-month interval.

To cease companies from paying solicitors to make use of their particulars as ‘ghosts’ to acquire extra slots, a rule was launched within the 2017 authorized assist crime contracts requiring obligation solicitors to hold out 14 hours of contract work per week from the workplace for which they derive their rota slots. ‘The rule hit lots of people,’ Hill says.

Whereas the rule was amended in 2018 following lobbying by the Regulation Society, and now permits larger flexibility in rural areas with inadequate obligation work, native companies’ capacity to cooperate continues to be affected, he says: ‘Beforehand you might share police station work with somebody regionally. Now if the decision comes via to your agency and you’ll’t do it, the work goes on to the subsequent individual.’ Some 90% of obligation solicitor name centre requests for police station recommendation have to be accepted and handled correctly, or the agency will fail towards LAA key efficiency indicators.

In the case of civil authorized assist, downsizing might also rule out methods comparable to doing authorized assist work (which carries a comparatively excessive threat of falling foul of LAA guidelines, resulting in charges being refused or recouped) professional bono within the hope that it results in the much less dangerous and better paid certificates work. ‘Smaller companies and sole practitioners can’t afford to work free of charge,’ Hills says.

Maybe one of the best hope of the sector’s survival lies in larger cooperation, as practised by Harvey, and resistance to additional detrimental change. Immigration companies confirmed power in numbers once they united in opposition to authorities plans for a authorized assist fixed-fee regime for immigration and asylum appeals. Solicitors from 200 companies got here collectively to launch a judicial overview of the transfer, with a separate problem by Duncan Lewis, forcing a Ministry of Justice climbdown in August.

However there was much less solidarity between prison defence companies in resisting MoJ proposals to open courts on Saturdays for routine prison work, with one lawyer tweeting that each one companies in his space had agreed to refuse to tackle routine Saturday court docket work, bar one unnamed follow. The tweet prompted a number of responses bemoaning the occupation’s incapability to face collectively. London defence solicitor Julian Younger tweeted: ‘Welcome to the world of Highbury Nook Magistrates’ Courtroom the place solidarity can be an phantasm and touting is rampant.’

Whereas some companies are ready to scrap over such lean pickings relatively than work collectively, legislation companies dedicated to a future in authorized assist will stay reliant on their very own imaginative endeavours with a purpose to survive.


Melanie Newman is a contract journalist