Humorous factor, the legislation. You wouldn’t, as an example, assume you may get a ticket for parking by yourself land. However you’ll be able to. Who says? The Court docket of Enchantment, for one. On 27 November 2009 in Dawood v Parking & Visitors Appeals Service & One other [2009] EWCA Civ 1411, in refusing permission to attraction towards a penalty cost discover, Sedley LJ stated that: ‘One might need thought that no person may commit a felony offence by parking a motor scooter on his personal land. However the adjudicator took the legislation to be in any other case and HHJ Oliver‑Jones held that the opposite was not debatable.’ As did Sedley LJ.

Nicholas Dobson

However though the precept stands, following a current choice of Fordham J within the Administrative Court docket, its software clearly is dependent upon the factual circumstances. The case was R (Pereira) v Surroundings and Visitors Adjudicators [2020] EWHC 811 (Admin), judgment wherein was given on three April 2020.

Dr Pereira (the claimant) and Dr Stephen Pereira (the Pereiras) dwell at 1 Faculty Highway, Dulwich Village, London, proudly owning their home and the encircling land. The home front-facing Faculty Highway has a strip of land between the home and a hedge which on this judgment the courtroom divided into three: (i) the ‘hedge strip’, that’s the space adjoining the hedge containing most likely sufficient house to park three automobiles nostril to tail; (ii) the ‘center strip’ which might be left unobstructed by parking within the hedge strip; and (iii) the ‘chain hyperlink strip’, that’s, that nearest Faculty Highway and adjoining a series hyperlink fence. The Pereiras owned each the hedge strip and the center strip. Because the courtroom famous: ‘It makes good sense for the Pereiras and their guests to park within the hedge strip’, which ‘leaves the center strip clear and unobstructed’. Due to this fact, ‘probably the most pure path to stroll alongside the pavement is within the center strip’.

Nevertheless, Southwark Council issued a penalty cost discover referring to Dr Pereira’s automobile which had been parked alongside the hedge strip on 15 July 2018. On what foundation? Part 15(1) of the Larger London Council (Normal Powers) Act 1974 offers that ‘any one who causes or permits any automobile to be parked in Larger London with a number of wheels on or over any a part of a street apart from a carriageway, or on or over a footpath, shall be responsible of an offence’. By part 2 of the 1974 act ‘street’ has the identical which means as within the Highway Visitors Regulation Act 1967 (now see the Highway Visitors Regulation Act 1984) and contains ‘any size of street and any a part of the width of a street’. Part 104(1) of the 1967 act defines ‘street’ as ‘any freeway and another street to which the general public has entry, and contains bridges over which a street passes’.

As Fordham J famous, the 1967 act definition of ‘street’ in part 104 has two limbs: the ‘freeway limb’ (that’s, ‘any freeway’); and the ‘public entry street limb’ (‘another street to which the general public has entry’). It was for Southwark to show, on the steadiness of possibilities, that the hedge strip fell inside one or different of those two limbs. The site visitors penalty tribunal adjudicator refused the claimant’s attraction and decided that Southwark had established the freeway limb as an adopted public freeway or within the different that Southwark had established the general public entry street limb. The evaluate adjudicator upheld the penalty cost discover however on totally different grounds, specifically that Southwark had not established the freeway limb by displaying the related land to be an adopted public freeway however on the premise of deemed dedication beneath part 31 of the Highways Act 1980 (consumer as of proper and with out interruption for a full interval of 20 years within the absence of proof negating intention to dedicate). The evaluate thought-about it pointless to find out the general public entry street limb.

Nevertheless, Fordham J allowed the claimant’s judicial evaluate software and refused to remit the freeway and the general public entry street limbs for reconsideration. He stated: ‘The evaluate adjudicator’s dedication upholding the freeway limb can not stand, as a result of Southwark was not advancing such a declare, nonetheless much less one which had marshalled proof able to supporting such a conclusion.’ As ‘Hilbery J put it in Merstham Manor Ltd v Coulsdon [1937] 2 KB 77 at 82: “he who asserts the suitable should set up as a matter of truth, on the one hand, the precise enjoyment of the suitable by the general public as of proper and, alternatively, the precise struggling of the train of that proper by the landowner for the total interval of twenty years”’.

Furthermore, the evaluate adjudicator’s dedication upholding the freeway limb couldn’t stand for the additional and impartial purpose that the reasoning concerned a fabric error of legislation. For ‘the all-important land was the hedge strip. The truth that pedestrians may all the time stroll alongside the center strip, every time the hedge strip was blocked by a parked automobile – even when there was by no means a parked automobile within the center strip – may assist a conclusion that there was a “method” over the center strip. However that was not ok to assist the parking ticket for the automobile parked on the hedge strip’.

The judicial evaluate was due to this fact granted. The evaluate adjudicator’s antagonistic conclusion on the part 31 concern couldn’t stand, nor may he have discovered factual public entry on his findings of truth and the proof. He ought to have overturned the choice of the attraction adjudicator and allowed the attraction. Within the circumstances, remittal was inappropriate and pointless.


Nicholas Dobson writes on native authority legislation and governance