The low down

Many tribunals quantity among the many courts which might be overwhelmed by their caseloads. Not so the Higher Tribunal of the Tax and Chancery Chamber (UTTCC) which hears disputes arising from selections by the Metropolis’s regulators. However though London frequently vies to be the worldwide high spot for monetary companies, within the 12 months to March 2020 the tribunal acquired simply 432 disputes. Perhaps its very existence improves the decision-making of regulators eager that their deliberations be ‘tribunal-proof’. The standard of the tribunal’s selections wins excessive reward from practitioners. Might a dramatic growth of its remit fill a ‘justice hole’ skilled by SMEs with claims towards banks? The federal government is lukewarm on the concept, preferring the ‘gentle legislation’ options supplied by compensation schemes. The price of that choice and banks’ tendencies to settle large circumstances is that the UK is brief on the circumstances that develop the certainties created by onerous legislation.

The tribunal for disputes between monetary companies corporations and their regulators has been successful and there have been strikes to increase its remit to disputes involving small and medium-sized companies (SMEs). Nevertheless, there are issues that it’s being underused, which has destructive penalties for transparency and, probably, for monetary stability.

The Higher Tribunal of the Tax and Chancery Chamber (UTTCC) was created by the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act, which got here into power in November 2008, however it was granted a slender vary of energy.

‘The tribunal itself has bought a really restricted statutory jurisdiction and really hears a comparatively modest variety of circumstances,’ says Simon Morris, a accomplice at CMS. Amongst them are challenges towards selections by the Monetary Conduct Authority (FCA), the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) and different monetary companies regulators regarding, for instance, permissions to supply monetary companies, fines for market abuse and disciplinary measures.

But Morris, a member of the Metropolis of London Regulation Society Regulatory Committee, says that ‘inside its very particular remit, the tribunal is competent and it’s efficient’.

‘My expertise has been that, when the tribunal is used, it’s a very efficient discussion board for reopening selections of the FCA,’ says Blackstone Chambers’ Javan Herberg QC. ‘Most of its remit tends to be fully de novo, so it’s not simply reviewing the FCA’s selections,’ he says, including: ‘It’s actually a major decision-maker.’

The UTTCC, like different tribunals, sits as a panel with ‘a legally certified chair and two lay effectors who’ve market expertise, identical to the RDC does’, says Herberg. The Regulatory Selections Committee (RDC) is an FCA board committee that operates individually from the remainder of the regulator; it’s the FCA’s decision-maker for contested circumstances which might be often thought of by a panel of three members. The RDC’s course of is administrative, reasonably than judicial, and it’s the closing stage of decision-making inside the FCA.

‘My expertise has been that, when the tribunal is used, it’s a very efficient discussion board for reopening selections of the FCA’

Javan Herberg QC, Blackstone Chambers

The UTTCC, headed by barrister Sir Antony James Zacaroli, is made up of specialist judges appointed by the lord chancellor, amongst them Timothy Herrington, who was chairman of the RDC till he moved to the tribunal in February 2012. Herberg says Herrington has been ‘a really efficient and impartial decide’ and ‘assured in taking circumstances towards the FCA to the tribunal’.

‘My solely expertise is that the tribunal is impartial, it is going to hear the case correctly, and can make a decision that one can usually believe in, win or lose, because it have been,’ Herberg provides.

Excessive reward

Morris is equally glowing in his reward, saying Herrington, a former Clifford Probability accomplice and an skilled in regulation of monetary markets, is ‘immensely versatile in regulation and comes up, when we have now questions, with actually high-quality selections’.

‘The UTTCC judgments are nicely written, well-structured and thorough,’ says Rachel Couter, a accomplice within the business and regulatory crew at Osborne Clarke in London. The function of the UTTCC is to not problem selections by the FCA or different monetary regulators, such because the PRA and the Pensions Regulator, however to listen to related issues from scratch and to kind its personal view of the details and, in disciplinary circumstances, what motion the FCA ought to take, if any, Couter explains.

‘Rightly or wrongly, nonetheless, the notion is that the UTTCC usually begins from the premise that the FCA will need to have been justified within the actions it needs to take and it is rather troublesome to steer the UTTCC that the FCA is flawed,’ she provides.

However, in a ‘welcome’ resolution in Monetary Options (Euro) Ltd v FCA in April this 12 months, the UTTCC concluded that the FCA ’s therapy of the regulated agency was significantly poor and located in its favour, says Couter: ‘This proves that, in the best case, the UTTCC does present the impartial problem it’s arrange for.’

At situation was the FCA’s resolution to cancel the agency’s regulatory permissions as a result of it had didn’t pay charges and levies to the FCA and didn’t have skilled indemnity insurance coverage.

But the monetary companies circumstances which might be taken to the tribunal are ‘actual fact particular’ and likewise ‘pretty rare’, says Couter. ‘There have simply been a handful of substantive hearings prior to now 18-24 months, with the overwhelming majority of the tribunal’s work taken up by tax circumstances.’ The UTTCC principally decides appeals on factors of legislation from the First-Tier Tribunal Tax Chamber. It additionally has a restricted judicial evaluate jurisdiction, for instance, on sure selections by HM Income and Customs, the Pensions Regulator and the Charity Fee.

Within the monetary 12 months ending 31 March 2020, the UTTCC acquired a complete of 432 circumstances (the Ministry of Justice doesn’t present a breakdown by case sort). That could be a tiny proportion of the tribunals’ total caseload of 393,080, which included 103,973 circumstances to employment tribunals; 160,423 to the Social Safety and Youngster Assist tribunals; and seven,694 to the Particular Academic Wants and Incapacity tribunals.

Screenshot 2020-10-29 at 14.44.44

This paucity of circumstances appears at odds with the FCA being the conduct regulator for almost 60,000 monetary companies corporations and the PRA regulating round 1,500 banks, constructing societies, credit score unions, insurers and main funding corporations.

‘The most important characteristic of the tribunal is that establishments have merely not used it,’ says Herberg. Even to contest an FCA resolution via a referral to the RDC has been ‘a push for many establishments’, which want to settle with the FCA at an early stage.

Proceedings in all courts, together with the UTTCC, are public. However there was ‘an enormous aversion to open public hearings’ within the monetary companies sector says Herberg, significantly for the reason that disaster of 2008-09.

‘Hardly any main establishment has ever gone to the UTTCC. Partly it’s repute, and partly it’s that they don’t need to spend the subsequent two to a few years combating the regulator,’ says Morris. ‘Massive corporations usually need to transfer on.’

Additionally it is truthful to say, corporations in all probability determine it’s value taking a direct monetary hit reasonably than air their soiled washing in public and threat the larger losses that would lead to shedding a listening to.

Given the small variety of monetary companies circumstances that proceed to the tribunal, it’s troublesome to discern developments in substantive selections. That’s, other than its ‘constant refusal to search out towards the presumption that FCA resolution notices ought to be revealed pending the end result of the reference to the UTTCC, except distinctive unfairness and disproportionate injury might be proven’, says Couter.

David Harris, a accomplice at Norton Rose Fulbright, provides: ‘The privateness functions earlier than the UTTCC, the place people have been in search of to stop the publication of resolution notices, reiterate the sturdy presumption in favour of open justice and transparency of decision-making, and the excessive bar people have to succeed in to display publication would trigger them a disproportionate degree of harm.’

People have made larger use of the tribunal, based on Herberg. Take the FCA’s resolution in September 2018 to ban Christian Bittar, who had sought to control world Euribor rates of interest, ‘from performing any regulated perform’. This adopted the previous Deutsche Financial institution’s dealer’s referral to the tribunal, which directed the FCA to not impose a £6.5m penalty on him, however confirmed the regulator’s ban on Bittar which was issued in April 2017. In separate felony proceedings, Bittar was sentenced to 5 years and 4 months in jail and ordered to pay £2.5m by means of a confiscation order. 

Christian Bittar

There are different examples. In November 2018, the tribunal upheld the FCA’s resolution to tremendous and ban two former executives of Keydata. Stewart Ford was fined £76m (a file for a person) and Mark Owen £3,240,787. Earlier this 12 months, Conor Foley, the ex-chief government of WorldSpreads, turned to the tribunal to problem a monetary penalty of £658,900 for market abuse and a prohibition to carry out any function in regulated monetary companies.

Herberg – who acted for ex-JP Morgan banker Achilles Macris within the ‘third celebration rights’ case towards the FCA that culminated within the Supreme Court docket in March 2017 – says that extra just lately he has detected ‘an elevated willingness on the a part of establishments to not less than contemplate difficult the FCA within the tribunal and I feel it is going to begin to occur extra’.

Just about all agency circumstances settle at ‘stage 1’ the place they will profit from a reduction of as much as 30% of a proposed monetary penalty. To make contentious regulatory issues extra clear and encourage extra corporations to refer circumstances to the RDC or the tribunal, the FCA launched the ‘partly-contested circumstances’ route in 2017 that enables corporations and people to agree sure components of the case towards them and contest others, utilizing a centered decision settlement (FRA) whereas nonetheless getting some degree of low cost on the penalty. This permits the events to slender the dispute which then proceeds to the RDC on a restricted foundation – with recourse on attraction from the RDC to the UTTCC.

On the time, Mark Steward, the FCA’s director of enforcement and market oversight, mentioned: ‘It’s important that our enforcement decision-making processes command public confidence and function each effectively and pretty.’ This adopted a Treasury evaluate of the regulator’s enforcement powers in 2014 and criticism of its predecessor, the Monetary Companies Authority, for failing to correctly examine the collapse of HBOS (the Financial institution of Scotland’s holding firm) in 2008.

However in a speech in February, Steward mentioned that solely ‘a small variety of events’ had taken the partly contested case choice.

This may occasionally quickly change. Harris highlights the UTTCC’s first resolution in 2019 beneath the partly contested course of. Within the case in query, the agency accepted the details put ahead by the FCA, in addition to legal responsibility for the breaches recognized, however disputed the penalty.

‘Though the tribunal upheld the FCA’s proposed penalty, we anticipate to see a rise in use of the FRA process and might even see penalty reductions in future circumstances on the tribunal,’ he says, including: ‘Companies will definitely be hoping that the tribunal demonstrates that it’s ready to cut back fines the place acceptable, significantly provided that fines in FRA circumstances have been recognized to extend on the earlier Regulatory Selections Committee stage,’ he provides.

One other vital issue is that ‘the FCA continues to be fairly aggressive in levying massive fines, so there comes some extent the place, in case you are selecting fines of £30, £40 or £50 million, it’s merely value your whereas to go to the tribunal,’ says Herberg. In 2019, the FCA imposed monetary penalties of greater than £310m on corporations and awarded £231m in restitution funds.

If 2019 was a file 12 months, it’s value noting that between 1 January and mid-September the FCA imposed simply 4 fines, in comparison with 16 issued in the identical interval final 12 months, based on Metropolis legislation agency RPC, which cited ‘disruptions to enforcement actions because of Covid-19 and lockdowns’ as potential causes.

What may also clarify the comparatively low variety of circumstances heard by the tribunal is that there isn’t a common rule that the ‘loser pays’ explains Couter. ‘Awards of prices are solely permitted if the UTTCC considers that both the FCA or the referring celebration has acted unreasonably in making or defending the reference or has behaved inappropriately through the course of the UTTCC proceedings’. That is the case, for instance, if a celebration persistently didn’t adjust to the tribunal’s deadlines or failed to provide proof to assist its case, or if the FCA’s proposed resolution was unreasonable. ‘Prices awards are, subsequently, uncommon. However they do occur if the UTTCC considers that the FCA behaved egregiously, because the UTTCC clearly did within the Monetary Options (Euro) case,’ she says.

What number of circumstances is sufficient?

The extent to which monetary corporations are utilizing Higher Tribunal of the Tax and Chancery Chamber (UTTCC) is just not the one measure of its success.


‘The existence of a tribunal, for my part, has had probably the most important influence on the event of regulatory decision-making on this jurisdiction,’ CMS accomplice Simon Morris argues.




‘The actual fact that there’s a tribunal which stands prepared to listen to and adjudicate on a really big selection of FCA and PRA formal selections has probably the most huge, albeit invisible influence of constructing certain that when any regulator takes any resolution, it [does so] with nice care and deliberation as a result of it is aware of that the choice it makes has bought to be “tribunal-proof”,’ says Morris. He provides that despite the fact that the regulators know that few circumstances go to the tribunal ‘the truth that any of them might signifies that they proceed, usually talking, fastidiously and prudently’.


Commenting on the tribunal’s jurisprudence of the previous two years, Norton Rose Fulbright accomplice Katie Stephen says: ‘The circumstances display that the [UTTCC] is a vital examine and stability for the regulators’ supervisory and enforcement decision-making processes.’


In a single case the tribunal discovered {that a} prohibition order proposed by the FCA was not merited, regardless of agreeing that the related particular person had demonstrated a scarcity of integrity, Stephen says. ‘Within the context of upholding a regulatory resolution, the tribunal has additionally supplied steerage to the FCA on coping with conditions through which corporations disagree with the regulator’s view and has commented on “lengthy intervals of delay brought on by the authority’s lack of motion”,’ she provides, referring to a different case determined in 2019.

Thoughts the hole

However others say there stays a spot out there for dispute decision. Highlighting the ‘shortcomings’ of the present system, Robbie Constance, accomplice and head of monetary companies regulatory at DWF, says ‘the tribunal is simply inaccessible’ and ‘the FCA continues just about unchallenged’.

Constance says the Libor and foreign-exchange [FX] rigging scandals, the place regulators levied file fines on lenders, illustrate his level. ‘They broadly all settled for about the identical amount of cash at about the identical time, so none of these vital potential authorized points about Libor and FX fixing have been ventilated earlier than the monetary companies tribunal. A couple of went earlier than Southwark Crown Court docket, however from a regulatory perspective we find yourself not getting to listen to a lot correct legislation,’ says Constance.

He provides: ‘I really feel more and more that we, as attorneys on this sector, are ever extra regulatory consultants wanting on the liabilities created by an ombudsman, the rules created by parliament, the Treasury, the FCA, virtually indifferent from good old-fashion widespread legislation.’

Richard Samuel, a barrister at Three Hare Court docket, put ahead the concept of a everlasting, specialist monetary companies tribunal  in three articles revealed within the Capital Markets Regulation Journal in 2016, arguing that it could cut back regulatory uncertainty by offering ‘definitive interpretations of rules (together with the FCA Handbook)’.

‘None of these vital potential authorized points about Libor and FX fixing have been ventilated earlier than the monetary companies tribunal’

Robbie Constance, DWF

Samuel tells the Gazette: ‘The purpose about [an FST] is that it’s meant to have the ability to produce high-quality selections on legislation at a low value, that’s the essence of it. It’s accessible to the events who want it, however it’s producing high-quality selections on which the remainder of the market can rely.’

Samuel’s suggestion prompted the All Occasion Parliamentary Group (APPG) on Truthful Enterprise Banking to launch an inquiry into the concept (Lord Dyson sat on the board of the inquiry), The APPG was supportive of the idea and led two debates, in December 2016 and January 2018, within the Home of Commons. Subsequent, two experiences got here out in October 2018: a evaluate commissioned by UK Finance and led by Simon Walker CBE opposed the concept of an FST as a result of it could be ‘costly for presidency and for members’, and one on SME Finance by the Treasury Choose Committee concluded that ‘increasing the remit of the [Financial Ombudsman Service (FOS)], as proposed by each the FCA and Simon Walker, will nonetheless go away a spot out there for dispute decision’.

Nevertheless, the report continued: ‘Bigger, extra complicated SME disputes shall be both ineligible or unsuitable for the ombudsman, but these bringing these disputes could lack the assets required for litigation. The committee believes {that a} Monetary Companies Tribunal is required to deal with these disputes, and that such a physique would usefully complement the growth to the FOS’s remit proposed by the FCA.’


The proposal has stalled, due partly to Covid-19, however Samuel says that ‘it continues to take care of loads of political curiosity’ and ‘it comes up within the radar when there’s a new scandal that comes alongside’.

The GRG case is an instance. In its closing report into RBS’s now-defunct International Restructuring Group in June 2019, the FCA mentioned that it could take no motion towards the lender or senior workers, regardless of proof of ‘systemic and widespread’ mistreatment of SME enterprise clients between 2008 and 2013. Kevin Hollinrake MP, co-chair of the APPG on Truthful Enterprise Banking, criticised the report for being ‘one other full whitewash’; whereas then Treasury Choose Committee chair, Nicky Morgan MP, mentioned: ‘The federal government must also rethink its rejection of the committee’s proposal for the introduction of a Monetary Companies Tribunal for SMEs to settle disputes with their banks.’

‘The proposal to create a Monetary Companies Tribunal was to permit SMEs, which have been too massive to entry the FOS, to have a spot to resolve their disputes with out having to go to the courts with the inherent prices of litigation,’ says Couter, including that this concept ‘doesn’t seem to should have been considerably progressed’. Conversely, what has gone forward is the choice proposal, following the Walker evaluate, to create an impartial dispute decision physique for companies with annual turnovers of as much as £10m which might be ineligible for the FOS, she factors out.

The Enterprise Banking Decision Service (BBRS) is being arrange in session with varied SME consultant our bodies, together with the APPG on Truthful Enterprise Banking. Seven of the most important UK banks are taking part to the service, which is at present within the ‘dwell pilot’ stage and is planning to launch a full service later this 12 months.

The FOS’s jurisdiction was additionally prolonged in April 2019 to companies with annual turnovers of as much as £6.5m and the BBRS shall be given jurisdiction to listen to unresolved disputes from way back to 2008 for companies that may now be eligible for the FOS, however weren’t on the time, Couter provides.

Nicky Morgan

Beneath the BBRS scheme, the utmost award is £600,000. Final 12 months, the FOS elevated its most compensation restrict from £150,000 to £350,000.

‘In the meanwhile, there appears to be an incremental growth of soppy legislation,’ says Constance. ‘However none of it’s main in direction of public, predictable, sure authorized outcomes.’ Lengthy-term this will have an ‘antagonistic impact’ on the UK’s monetary companies sector post-Brexit, he argues.

The BBRS and FOS produce ‘gentle’ reasonably than ‘onerous’ authorized outcomes, provides Samuel. The barrister factors to the Regulation Society’s world authorized centre marketing campaign which promotes English legislation as probably the most generally used legislation in worldwide enterprise as it’s ‘versatile, predictable and secure’ and asks: ‘Why then are we making a black field of unpredictable legislation across the regulation that’s governing an enormous a part of our economic system, which is the monetary companies sector?’

So how would Samuel’s proposed new tribunal co-exist with the UTTCC? One choice could be to create a brand new ‘chamber’ for monetary companies disputes working beneath the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act, he says. The opposite, could be to increase the jurisdiction of the UTTCC to allow SMEs to implement their ‘personal’ rights towards monetary establishments.

The tribunal could be modelled on employment tribunals or the Competitors Attraction Tribunal, powers of which have been expanded beneath the Shopper Rights Act 2015 to incorporate a fast-track process for SMEs.

‘The purpose is that you’re coping with a non-public legislation matter the place there’s a important imbalance of energy between one celebration and the subsequent, for instance, employer and worker,’ says Samuel. ‘The aim of the tribunal, versus the courtroom, is to flatten out that energy imbalance in the way in which that courts don’t.’

Writing within the Capital Markets Regulation Journal in 2016, he mentioned: ‘In contrast to courts, a decide chairing a tribunal makes his resolution equally as one among three: he’s joined by market specialists from both facet of the case, on this case, by a member of the monetary companies business and by a consultant of small enterprise.’

A 3rd choice could be to create a ‘junior’ model of the Excessive Court docket’s Monetary Checklist, which offers with circumstances value greater than £50m. Nevertheless, Samuel insists: ‘You need the highest quality decision-making on the lowest potential worth, and I feel a tribunal might be proper for that.’

The jury seems to be out on the deserves of extending the UTTCC’s jurisdiction.

The genesis of the present system goes again to when the Monetary Companies and Markets Act 2000 was going via the Home of Commons and the Home of Lords, Morris recollects. It was designed by the Treasury with the UTTCC ‘meant as a separate tribunal to take care of sure FCA and PRA selections and all the opposite issues go to the Excessive Court docket’.

Morris argues that the tribunal at present delivers ‘actually high-quality selections’ with a level of predictability. ‘I might be very reluctant to see the tribunal diluted by willy-nilly including on additional jurisdictions. I’m not conscious of any severe demand for them.’


Marialuisa Taddia is a contract journalist